Showing posts with label GradeXII. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GradeXII. Show all posts

Sep 6, 2012

Nepali Grammar Document

It was indeed an awful summer. It’s not over yet though, but holidays are on their way. Without further ado, let us come to the point. Earlier this week, we have started our project for a complete note on Nepali for hseb plus two students.


As we all know that there is no any alternative for the subject Nepali and HSEB requires every single student to secure maximum 100 marks in Nepali before leaving the board. That makes Nepali a common and compulsory subject for every single faculty under HSEB.

Typing Nepali is quite a difficult job, but there is nothing greater than will and that much is enough. Our will to provide you with the best or at least good material is the only key of encouragement towards the production of these documents.

Aug 5, 2012

Hurried trip to avoid a Bad star - M. Lilla and C. Bishop Barry

American geographers M. Lilla and C. Bishop Barry in their essay Hurried trip to avoid a Bad Star present an exploration of Karnali zone of western Nepal on foot for 15 months. This essay was published as a visit report in The National Geographic as Karnali, The road less World of Western Nepal in 1971. The writers in this essay describe the life account of Karnali zone people, their daily life, their tradition and culture, their lack of awareness about environmental preservation and Karnali zone’s economic dependency with the plain region of south Nepal.

Hansel and Gretel - Grimm Brothers and Others

A poor woodcutter used to live with his second wife and two children called Hansel and Gretel. Once, when the country was in famine father was really in trouble to maintain the family. But his wife was not worried even a little about the children. She rather insisted her husband to desert them into the dense forest. The woodcutter did not like the idea but he had to accept his wife’s proposal.
The children overheard their parents and Hansel collected jacket full of shiny pebbles. The next morning, he dropped the pebbles on the way while going to the forest. When they reached the middle of the forest, the parents collected firewood, kindled fire and left the children promising to return soon with firewood.
The children soon fell asleep. When they woke up, it was already dark. Gretel began to cry and Hansel consoled her.
As the moon shone in the sky, they saw the pebbles shining brightly. Following the trail of pebbles they finally reached their home.

The Boarding House - James Joyce

James Joyce in the story The Boarding House recollects his own days of youth in Dublin by drawing the characters of Mr. Doran and Mrs. Mooney.
Mrs. Mooney was a butcher’s daughter who married to the foreman of his father’s meat shop. After the death of her father, her husband started drinking alcohol and spending monkey from the shop. He started quarrelling with Mrs. Mooney in the presence of customers and soon ruined the business by selling bad meat. Once her husband chased her with large knife in order to kill her and she had to protect herself by hiding in neighbours house. After that incident, Mrs. Mooney left her husband, sold the meat shop and started a boarding house.

Jul 25, 2012

Purgatory - William Butler Yeats

The old man was born in the ruined house. His mother was an aristocratic woman who fell in love with a groom and married him despite the opposition from her family. The old man’s mother died while giving birth to him. She didn’t know that her husband wasted all her money on alcohol, women and playing cards. The old man’s father destroyed the spirit of the house by doing wrong things. The old man wasn’t sent to school but was taught by a priest and by the wife of a servant. On being complained by his son that he had not sent him to school, he told him that he didn’t deserve to go to school because he was the son of an unmarried, low class woman. When the old man was sixteen years old, his father burnt down the house when he was drunk. Therefore, he stabbed his father to death with a knife which he kept using for cutting food. He was not arrested for the crime because it was impossible to prove that his father’s body had been stabbed to death as it was burnt very badly. After the murder, he ran away from the house and became a peddler.

The Tell-Tale Heart - Edgar Alan Poe

Edgar Alan Poe in his story The Tell-Tale Heart shows the mystery of murder keeping the readers in great suspense up to end of the story. The narrator is very sensitive to hearing and denies the allegation of being as he is capable of telling his own story beautifully.


The narrator was sharing a house with an old man keeping a very good relationship with him. He badly disliked the pale blue vulture like eyes of the old man which disturbed him very much. To get rid of the eye of the old man, finally he decided to kill him. He entered into the room of the old man with an aim to kill him for 7 nights. However, he came back each time without killing him because he found the vulture like eyes of old man closed. Since only the eye of the old man stimulates his anger, he couldn’t kill the old man because he didn’t see the eyes of the old man.

A Child is Born - Germaine Greer

Germaine Geer in her essay A child is born discusses the state of pregnant women, different methods of having babies and compares the parents-children relationship in modern west and traditional east societies.In traditional societies, there are different methods of having babies. These methods are extremely useful because they make having baby less frightening for the pregnant mothers. The traditional behaviors make the pregnant women forget their worries because they are helped by their husbands, their relatives and communities.


In many traditional societies, women are not fully accepted by their new families until they have borne babies. The western people criticize such practice calling it cruel and wrong. In traditional societies, the relationship between the mother and her child is more important than the relationship between a woman and her husband. In such societies, the relationship between the child and other members of the family including grandparents is also very important. In such societies, usually children are not born at the will of parents but born in response to the pressure from the whole family. Irrespective of sex, a new born baby is welcomed and childbirth is widely celebrated in traditional societies. However, no such practice is prevailing in modern west societies. In modern west societies, a child is born in an isolated bed in hospital surrounded by machines and the child birth is not celebrated either.

The Children Who Wait - Marsha Traugot

Marsha Traugot, a social worker who worked for the prevention of cruelty against children in her essay, The Children Who Wait describes the state of parentless children in America prior to 1960, only healthy white infants (babies) were considered to be suitable for adoption by wealthy childless white families. A non-white family, bi-racial and single families were not considered adoptive. Handicapped, black and bi-racial children were never considered adoptable even by the social organizations working in this field.

Women’s Business - Ilene Kantrov

Ilene Kandrov in her essay Women’s Business paints the portraits of Lydia E. Pinkham and other business women who have been successful in American business world. The women discussed in the essay were not only business women but also involved in social service particularly in educating people about issues and problems related to women. However it was clear that their interest in making money was more important than their interest in improving society.


Most of the business women used lavish and misleading advertisement for improving their business. For example, Lydia E. Pinkham who was in favor of stopping people in drinking alcohol sold her products that it was very alcoholic. She put steps into the business field with self invented machine called Lydia E. Pinkham’s vegetable compound. She claimed that her machine was complete remedy for all kind of diseases faced by women. She also took advantages of woman weakness to improve her business. By using different new techniques she activated the women in America and established herself in very respectable position in American business and secured a place for a lady in male dominated world of commerce.

I Have a Dream - Martin Luther King Jr.

This historical and unforgettable speech was delivered by Martin Luther King Junior, a civil rights campaigner to a large crowd on 28th August 1963 in Lincoln’s Memorial Park, Washington DC. This speech was made on the occasion of 100 years of Lincoln’s emancipation proclamation which set the Negro slaves free from their slavery in America. In this speech king expresses that the people shouldn’t be judged based on the colour of skin but they should be judge on the basis of their intellectual capacity, wisdom and knowledge.

God’s Grandeur - Gerard Manley Hopkins

Glorifying and praising god’s grandeur the poet describes the magnificence of Omni present god. The poet also shows contrast between beauty of the nature with ugliness of industrialization and commercial activity.


According to the poet the world is filled with greatness of the god’s grandeur is reflected like shining from a hammered gold foil. It also accumulates greatness like oozing of oil from oil seeds on pressing them. Despite being about the glory and power of the god, human beings are indifferent towards god which makes the poet feel surprise. Human beings are following the same worthy path being un-mind full towards god’s power to punish them. Everything in this world has been made ugly by materialism and commercial activities because of human beings involvement in monetary gain. The freshness and beauty of nature have been blocked by industrial activities and fragrance of nature has been drowning in the foul odour (bad smell) that comes from man and machinery.


A Story - Dylan Thomas

This humorous story is narrated by a very young who is living with his uncle and aunt. In this story, the boy presents the adults' world from a child’s point of view. This story is about a day’s outing to Porthcawl by motor coach. In the first part of the story, the boy describes his uncle and aunt using metaphors and similes. The uncle was big and noisy whereas his wife was small and quiet who used to move on padded paws. The boy compares his uncle with a buffalo and a dismantle ship. He compared his aunt with her cat because of her quick and quiet movement and with a mouse because of her nibbling habit and tiny tone.

The Last Voyage of the Ghost Ship - Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Gabriel Garcia Marquez in his story The Last Voyage of the Ghost Ship which is written in Stream of consciousness style of writing describes the growth of an ordinary boy to an assertive (strong and confident) young man.


Many years ago, at night in the month of March the boy saw very large ship without light and sound while moving towards sandy beach near the village the boy saw the ship breaking and sinking into the sea but he didn’t hear any sound. The boy thought that he had a bad dream in the previous night as he didn’t see any wreckage at the place where the ship broke into pieces. The boy saw the same ship appearing at the same place and destroying like previous year and he was sure that he wasn’t dreaming. He told his mother about the ship but she didn’t believe him and thought her son became crazy. His mother used to spend almost her night sitting on her chair after the death of her husband 11 years ago. As the chair was very old she brought second hand chair from the market. But she died that very night sitting on the newly bought chair. Four more women from the same village also died sitting on the same chair. So the chair was thrown into the sea considering it is an evil chair. After the death of his mother the boy became orphan and started stealing fish form the boats to survive rather than depending on the charity of the villagers who had hated him.

Jul 24, 2012

Travelling Through the Dark - William Stafford

American poet William Stafford in his poem Travelling through the Dark presents the conflicts between physical action and emotion and responsibility to take appropriate course of action even in critical situation. The poet also satires the self proclaimed nature lovers who are responsible for the difficult state of wild animals and environmental degradation.


While driving on the edge of Wilson river road, once the poet saw a dead deer lying on the road. He stopped there to clear the road by pushing the deer off the road into the river as the road wasn’t wide enough. It was difficult to drive past the deer because the car might collide with the possible danger of falling off the road and get killed, the poet observe that the deer has been killed recently which was already stiff and almost cold. While pulling it to the corner of the road for pushing into the river, the poet observes its large belly and realized that the deer was pregnant. Although the body inside was still alive and waiting to be born, it was unlikely to born because its mother had already been dead. The poet was greatly confused in deciding correct of action in that difficult situation.

Full Fathom Five Thy Father Lies - William Shakespeare

The poem "Full Fathom Five Thy Father Lies" is written by famous English poet and playwright (dramatist) William Shakespeare. This poem appears to be in Act-I, Scene-2 of his tragic comedy play The Tempest. Aerial sings this song to Ferdinand, the prince of Naples who mistakenly thinks that his father is drowned and arrives on the Solitary Island in search of his father.

Aerial says that the body of Ferdinand’s father keeps lying 30 ft. below in the sea. His bones are changed into precious corals and his eyes have been transformed into pearls. No part of his body has decayed but changed into something very strange and precious thing belonging to the sea. The sea nymphs are ringing the funeral bell every hour and morning the death of Ferdinand’s father.

Two Long Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees - Moti Nissani

In the brief essay, Two Long Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees, Moti Nissani discusses two inter related problems they are, overpopulation and deforestation. With their impact showing several consequences of the twin problems, the writer makes us aware about our duties to solve them and to save the bio-sphere for our future generation.


Scientist from all over the world express their serious concern (worry) about present state of bio-sphere as human activities caused very serious damage on environment and on critical resources. With the introduction of modern medical facilities, nutrition and sanitation, the world’s population started growing more than 80 million per year. In Nepal only, in less than 50 years the population increases at the rate of 2.5% per year from 9 million to 25 million. If this alarming growth continuous unchecked, the population of Nepal will be 46 million by 2026 A.D. which would be very difficult for Nepal to accommodate. In order to feed more people, more forest, lands are destroyed in a very large scale.

The Lamentation of the Old Pensioner - W.B Yeats

W.B Yeats in his poem The Lamentation of the Old Pensioner recollects his young and energetic youth and laments at his neglected state in his old age.

Understanding a long journey of life through ups and downs the poet feels tired, upset and heading a neglected life in his old age.  The poet in his old age now is companion less and protecting himself from the rain taking shelter under a broken tree. But in his young and colorful days in the past. The poet used to be surrounded by his friends discussing love and politics in such raining days. He was actively involved in politics and the political situation was calm and quiet during his time. He recollects the peaceful political situation of his time and contracts the present violent political situation where people are collecting weapons and making conspiracy to over through the government to get power however, the poet is different about present political situation who is mentally thinking about cruel time that has transfigured him from young to old depriving him from enjoying his colorful life.      

About Love - Anton Chekov

Revealing (showing) his perception about mysterious Love, Anton Chekov in his story About Love expresses that love is governed by emotions which doesn’t care any physical restriction. Describing three love stories, the writer puts forward logic that, “Love is different in each situation and love isn’t confined within marital relationship”.

In a rainy day Alyohin narrated love stories to his friends while having breakfast. Nikanor, a cook was in love with a beautiful maid servant Pelageya and they were living in the same house although they weren’t married. When Nikanor was drunk and had a violent temper he used to abuse and bit her. Sometimes, she had to hide herself to avoid misconduct from Nikanor being a person of religious conviction, Nikanor insisted that Pelageya. However, she didn’t want to marry with Nikanor, rather she was ready to live with him just so, despite their contradictory (opposite) views and characters, they were in deep love with each other which was a great mystery.

Grandmother - Ray Young Bear

American Indian poet Ray Young Bear in his poem Grandmother describes his grandmother using similes, metamorphose and sense verbs. Depicting (pointing) a portrait (image) of grandmother of his tribe. The poet also reveals (show) the socio-economic status of Mesquaki tribe which he belongs.


The grandmother of the poet is the source of love and inspiration for him. As the poet was closely associated with his grandmother, her image is evergreen in fresh in his mind if the poet saw his grandmother from a far distance he would instantly recognize her because of her purple scarf around her neck and plastic shopping bag in her hand. If the grandmother touch his hand were of his grandmother only because they would feel warm and damp with smell of root. This indicates poet’s poor financial state which made the grandmother work in the field despite her old age. If the poet heard a voice coming from the rock, he would immediately know that the voice was of his grandmother as it would blow inside him like a light and warm on stirring a dying fire at night. The words would be inspiring for him as they would activate his inner feeling making the loving memory of his grandmother evergreen and very fresh.

Jul 23, 2012

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment

When a spherical charged body of radius r falls under the effect of various forces in a viscous medium of viscocity η, it attends the terminal velocity vt when the viscous force becomes 6πηrvt (Stoke’s law)

Experimental setup and Theory: An experimental setup of Millikan’s experiment to determine the change in oil drop is shown in figure. At first, clock oil (non volatile) is allowed to fall drop wise from the opening of upper plate A with the help of atomizer. This law undergoes collision with air particles and gets charged. The whole apparatus is kept inside double walled chamber inside which water is circulated for cooling purpose. The chamber consists of 2 windows.