Jul 31, 2012

Malini - Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore in his poetic play “Malini” presents a story of love and hatred. The play deals with a conflict between love and hatred as well as selfish way of thinking and broadmindedness. It is based on the concept that love in its absolute and pure form is all radiance, all pervading, and all compassionate. The play also shows that petty selfishness assumes the name of love and rules the world with hatred.


Malini, the princess of a Hindu kingdom had her education with Buddhist monks and started preaching their principles in the kingdom. Because of her preaching of new religion, the majority of Hindu Brahmins was agitated and started demanding Malini’s banishment from the place. Realizing the suffering of the people, Malini herself wanted to be banished from the palace in order to solve their problems. A group of Brahmins led by Kemankar started demanding Malini’s banishment appearing in front of the palace.

Oops! What’s That Again - Roger Rosenblatt

Roger Rosenblatt in his essay “Oops! What’s that Again” classifies the mistakes people make while speaking in humourous tone with remarkable examples. He also describes the reasons of these mistakes from linguistic and psychological point of view.

Broadly, the writer classifies verbal mistakes into four categories as under:

Jul 30, 2012

Keeping Things Whole - Mark Strand

Mark Strand in his poem “Keeping things Whole” expresses that human beings always disturb the nature whereas nature always makes a balance to keep itself intact. The poet appeals for wholeness of nature against its usual fragmentation while performing daily activities in our life.

The poet says that while in the field, he considers himself as absence of the field; this is because the field is missing where he is standing. Wherever he is in the field, he displaces and occupies the part of the field that is missing (not visible). According to the poet, he divides the air when he walks. In other words, he disturbs the nature.

Concrete Cat - Dorthi Charles

Using reduced language, the poet Dorthi Charles in her poem “Concrete Cat” presents a picture of a eat in victorious mood has recently killed a mouse. Opposite to general poetry that activates the readers emotionally with the help of words and sentences, the poet uses words to create general appearance of cat. In order to give perfect impression for the victorious cat, she uses capital letters in certain words. By using capital A in ear, she indicates the upright pointed ears of the cat in alterness. Capital Y in eye shows that the eyes are open and vigilant. Capital U in mouth indicates cat’s tongue which is likely to lick the eatables in the dish. Leaving spaces between the letters in tail, the poet wants to suggest that the spaces show the black colour of the tail which is waving. The mouse which is upside down is the latest killing of the cat. By replacing dishes and litter boxes near the cat, the poet indicates that the cat isn’t a wild cat but a domestic one.

Unchopping a Tree - W.S. Merwin

 WS Merwin in his essay “Unchopping a Tree” directs us to unchop a chopped down tree to make us realize the difficulty involved in this process. Giving pseudo direction, the writer makes un aware that unstopping a chopped down tree is an impossible task thereby appealing us to be wise and preserve the nature.


A tree has recently been chopped down, so the writer directs us to indulge ourselves to unchop the tree. He directs us to collect the leaves, twigs and put them to their original places. We should also repair the bird nests, spider webs, beehives and neighbouring trees damaged by the fall. It is very difficult to keep the fallen tree upright with the help of tackles and scaffoldings. Even being paying extreme care, there is possibility of snapping away some leaves and twigs. After keeping the trunk upright, we should put back all the splinters scattered around to their own places.

Jul 29, 2012

The Nightmare Life Without Fuel - Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov in his essay ‘The Nightmare Life Without Fuel’ depicts the horrible state of the world after the fuel is finished from the world. Showing the case of prosperous America which turns into a dark state of pre-industrial age because of fuel crisis, the writer draws our attention towards the vital need of preservation of fuel to avoid future crisis.

The writer assumes twenty years advance in time when the fuel is finished from the world. Because of fuel crisis, no vehicles are plying on the road making it very difficult for people to transport goods and to move to their destination. Being dangerous, nuclear fusion and fission to generate electricity is not being materialized. Being too expensive, solar batteries and other sources of energy are not being used.

Jul 28, 2012

Lens Formula and Important Terms with Definitions in Physics

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Rotational Motion

Rotational Inertia: That property of an object to resist any change in its state of rotation. If at rest the body tends to remain at rest; if rotating, it tends to remain rotating and will continue to do so unless acted upon by a net external torque.

The Poplar Field - William Cowper

William Cowper in his poem “The Poplar Field” shows us the link between human happiness with nature and appeals us to preserve it in order to keep ourselves happy.

The poplars which grew along the river Ouse have now been chopped down. The cooling shade the trees, the whistling sound made by the air while passing through the leaves and the image of poplars in the river Ouse are no longer there. Twelve years ago, when the poet first visited the place, he enjoyed the melodious songs of the black bird sitting under the cold shade of poplar. The poet is very sad now because he isn’t being able to hear the sweet songs of black buried anymore as the bird has flown away in search of shelter.

The Three Day Blow - Ernest Hemingway

"The three day Blow" is a story with an analogy between three day blow and the mental ordeal of the protagonist Nick. The story, which is written by an American writher Ernest Hemingway, traces a movement form conflict, through the separation and suffering to reconciliation. It conveys the fullness of a formal ritual.

It is the story of Nick Wemedge who intended to marry Marjorie. In order to get married with her, it was necessary for him to be back at home to find a job and earn money. That was his original plan in the beginning and later he decided to stay in Charlevoix all winter so that he could be near Marge. He made a plan to go to Italy with her, visiting different places while having a lot of fun together. Unfortunately they had to break away and his plans went astray.

Jul 27, 2012

Look at a Teacup - Patricia Hampl

“Look at a teacup” is a complicated essay with a great deals of hidden meaning to be read in between the lines. The essay abounds with rich as well as vivid description of china dishes especially tea cups and scattered information about the writer’s parents, her relation with mother and her views.

 As for the tea cups, they were made in Czechoslovakia and bought in 1939 by her mother. These cups which have been given to the author have a tiny “Czechoslovakia” stamped on the bottom. Each piece is thin and transparent having the palest water-green shade. One can see thin bands of gold around the edges of the saucer and cup. There is also a band of gold on the inner circle of the saucer. Inside the cup, flowers are depicted in different falling altitudes. It seems that as if someone has scattered a bouquet and the flowers appear to be caught in falling motion.

A Worn Path - Eudora Welty

The story “A worn Path” is remarkable for various aspects. One of them is the mild humour connected with the character, Phoenix Jackson. Besides being strong and adventurous she is found to have a subtle sense of humour. We find it in her behavior with a white man, while she was lying in the ditch the white man pulled her out of it. There she explained that she was lying back like a June-Bug waiting to be turned over. At the same time when he asked her about her age, she pointed out that she would never tell him about it.


In addition to it, one can find out some humourous events in the story. The instance of picking the nickel that feel out of the white man’s pocket is quite humourous. In order to do so she diverted his attention to the fight of the dogs. Before that she instigated that fight. When he was away to attend the fight, she bent down with a great difficulty and care to lift the coin from there. Once she slipped the nickel in her apron pocket she spoke out her thought loudly that god would be watching her steal the coin.

Jul 26, 2012

Speaking of Children -Barbara Holland

The advantages of parents for having one child are quite obvious. One child is an appendage and it can be outnumbered by parents. It can be carried along on pleasure trips. The most important of all is the privacy, which remains intact. On the contrary, plural children will be the end of advantages and the beginning of disadvantages. They will be counter-culture in the house and the parents will be outnumbered. There will be no place left in the living room because of the toys all over. Long pleasure trips will be shortened.The parents will be obliged to adjust themselves according to new situation. First priority will have to be given to the children and their matters.The house will be at sixes and sevens. Above all, there will be no privacy for the wife and the husband.

My Heart Leaps up When I Behold - William Wordsworth

The poem “My heart Leaps up when I behold” is written by William Wordsworth and English poet and worshipper of nature and simplicity. The poem is based on the recollection of the poet’s childhood experience and feelings that bear the stamp of continuity.

The poem deals with the spontaneous overflow of those powerful feelings and joys as felt by the heart of the poet in his childhood and manhood at the sight of a rainbow in the sky and the poet hopes to feel the same in the old age.

Jul 25, 2012

Stress and Strain Curve

Stress strain (curve):

The diagram shows the stress-strain curve for a ductile material. From the first part OA it is clear that Stress ∝ Strain. So, up to the point A, known as proportionality limit, Hooke’s law is obeyed. On further increase in stress, strain also increases but they are not increased proportionally. If the wire is unloaded up to the point B, it regains it’s original shape and size, so the point B is known as elastic limit or yelled point.

Purgatory - William Butler Yeats

The old man was born in the ruined house. His mother was an aristocratic woman who fell in love with a groom and married him despite the opposition from her family. The old man’s mother died while giving birth to him. She didn’t know that her husband wasted all her money on alcohol, women and playing cards. The old man’s father destroyed the spirit of the house by doing wrong things. The old man wasn’t sent to school but was taught by a priest and by the wife of a servant. On being complained by his son that he had not sent him to school, he told him that he didn’t deserve to go to school because he was the son of an unmarried, low class woman. When the old man was sixteen years old, his father burnt down the house when he was drunk. Therefore, he stabbed his father to death with a knife which he kept using for cutting food. He was not arrested for the crime because it was impossible to prove that his father’s body had been stabbed to death as it was burnt very badly. After the murder, he ran away from the house and became a peddler.

The Tell-Tale Heart - Edgar Alan Poe

Edgar Alan Poe in his story The Tell-Tale Heart shows the mystery of murder keeping the readers in great suspense up to end of the story. The narrator is very sensitive to hearing and denies the allegation of being as he is capable of telling his own story beautifully.


The narrator was sharing a house with an old man keeping a very good relationship with him. He badly disliked the pale blue vulture like eyes of the old man which disturbed him very much. To get rid of the eye of the old man, finally he decided to kill him. He entered into the room of the old man with an aim to kill him for 7 nights. However, he came back each time without killing him because he found the vulture like eyes of old man closed. Since only the eye of the old man stimulates his anger, he couldn’t kill the old man because he didn’t see the eyes of the old man.

A Child is Born - Germaine Greer

Germaine Geer in her essay A child is born discusses the state of pregnant women, different methods of having babies and compares the parents-children relationship in modern west and traditional east societies.In traditional societies, there are different methods of having babies. These methods are extremely useful because they make having baby less frightening for the pregnant mothers. The traditional behaviors make the pregnant women forget their worries because they are helped by their husbands, their relatives and communities.


In many traditional societies, women are not fully accepted by their new families until they have borne babies. The western people criticize such practice calling it cruel and wrong. In traditional societies, the relationship between the mother and her child is more important than the relationship between a woman and her husband. In such societies, the relationship between the child and other members of the family including grandparents is also very important. In such societies, usually children are not born at the will of parents but born in response to the pressure from the whole family. Irrespective of sex, a new born baby is welcomed and childbirth is widely celebrated in traditional societies. However, no such practice is prevailing in modern west societies. In modern west societies, a child is born in an isolated bed in hospital surrounded by machines and the child birth is not celebrated either.

The Children Who Wait - Marsha Traugot

Marsha Traugot, a social worker who worked for the prevention of cruelty against children in her essay, The Children Who Wait describes the state of parentless children in America prior to 1960, only healthy white infants (babies) were considered to be suitable for adoption by wealthy childless white families. A non-white family, bi-racial and single families were not considered adoptive. Handicapped, black and bi-racial children were never considered adoptable even by the social organizations working in this field.

Women’s Business - Ilene Kantrov

Ilene Kandrov in her essay Women’s Business paints the portraits of Lydia E. Pinkham and other business women who have been successful in American business world. The women discussed in the essay were not only business women but also involved in social service particularly in educating people about issues and problems related to women. However it was clear that their interest in making money was more important than their interest in improving society.


Most of the business women used lavish and misleading advertisement for improving their business. For example, Lydia E. Pinkham who was in favor of stopping people in drinking alcohol sold her products that it was very alcoholic. She put steps into the business field with self invented machine called Lydia E. Pinkham’s vegetable compound. She claimed that her machine was complete remedy for all kind of diseases faced by women. She also took advantages of woman weakness to improve her business. By using different new techniques she activated the women in America and established herself in very respectable position in American business and secured a place for a lady in male dominated world of commerce.

I Have a Dream - Martin Luther King Jr.

This historical and unforgettable speech was delivered by Martin Luther King Junior, a civil rights campaigner to a large crowd on 28th August 1963 in Lincoln’s Memorial Park, Washington DC. This speech was made on the occasion of 100 years of Lincoln’s emancipation proclamation which set the Negro slaves free from their slavery in America. In this speech king expresses that the people shouldn’t be judged based on the colour of skin but they should be judge on the basis of their intellectual capacity, wisdom and knowledge.

God’s Grandeur - Gerard Manley Hopkins

Glorifying and praising god’s grandeur the poet describes the magnificence of Omni present god. The poet also shows contrast between beauty of the nature with ugliness of industrialization and commercial activity.


According to the poet the world is filled with greatness of the god’s grandeur is reflected like shining from a hammered gold foil. It also accumulates greatness like oozing of oil from oil seeds on pressing them. Despite being about the glory and power of the god, human beings are indifferent towards god which makes the poet feel surprise. Human beings are following the same worthy path being un-mind full towards god’s power to punish them. Everything in this world has been made ugly by materialism and commercial activities because of human beings involvement in monetary gain. The freshness and beauty of nature have been blocked by industrial activities and fragrance of nature has been drowning in the foul odour (bad smell) that comes from man and machinery.


A Story - Dylan Thomas

This humorous story is narrated by a very young who is living with his uncle and aunt. In this story, the boy presents the adults' world from a child’s point of view. This story is about a day’s outing to Porthcawl by motor coach. In the first part of the story, the boy describes his uncle and aunt using metaphors and similes. The uncle was big and noisy whereas his wife was small and quiet who used to move on padded paws. The boy compares his uncle with a buffalo and a dismantle ship. He compared his aunt with her cat because of her quick and quiet movement and with a mouse because of her nibbling habit and tiny tone.

The Last Voyage of the Ghost Ship - Gabriel Garcia Marquez

Gabriel Garcia Marquez in his story The Last Voyage of the Ghost Ship which is written in Stream of consciousness style of writing describes the growth of an ordinary boy to an assertive (strong and confident) young man.


Many years ago, at night in the month of March the boy saw very large ship without light and sound while moving towards sandy beach near the village the boy saw the ship breaking and sinking into the sea but he didn’t hear any sound. The boy thought that he had a bad dream in the previous night as he didn’t see any wreckage at the place where the ship broke into pieces. The boy saw the same ship appearing at the same place and destroying like previous year and he was sure that he wasn’t dreaming. He told his mother about the ship but she didn’t believe him and thought her son became crazy. His mother used to spend almost her night sitting on her chair after the death of her husband 11 years ago. As the chair was very old she brought second hand chair from the market. But she died that very night sitting on the newly bought chair. Four more women from the same village also died sitting on the same chair. So the chair was thrown into the sea considering it is an evil chair. After the death of his mother the boy became orphan and started stealing fish form the boats to survive rather than depending on the charity of the villagers who had hated him.

Heat and Thermodynamics

What is heat?
Heat is a form of energy which gives us sensation of warmth. In other words, we can define heat as the total sum of kinetic energy produced due to the vibration of molecules of the element. Its unit is Joule (J) in SI system and calorie in CGS system.

What is temperature?
The degree of hotness or coldness of body is called temperature. It is also defined as the property by virtue of which identify whether the body in thermal equilibrium or not. When two bodies are in thermal contact they posses a common property which is represented by a numerical value is called temperature. Temperature is measured by thermometer. Its unit is Kelvin.

Jul 24, 2012

Travelling Through the Dark - William Stafford

American poet William Stafford in his poem Travelling through the Dark presents the conflicts between physical action and emotion and responsibility to take appropriate course of action even in critical situation. The poet also satires the self proclaimed nature lovers who are responsible for the difficult state of wild animals and environmental degradation.


While driving on the edge of Wilson river road, once the poet saw a dead deer lying on the road. He stopped there to clear the road by pushing the deer off the road into the river as the road wasn’t wide enough. It was difficult to drive past the deer because the car might collide with the possible danger of falling off the road and get killed, the poet observe that the deer has been killed recently which was already stiff and almost cold. While pulling it to the corner of the road for pushing into the river, the poet observes its large belly and realized that the deer was pregnant. Although the body inside was still alive and waiting to be born, it was unlikely to born because its mother had already been dead. The poet was greatly confused in deciding correct of action in that difficult situation.

Full Fathom Five Thy Father Lies - William Shakespeare

The poem "Full Fathom Five Thy Father Lies" is written by famous English poet and playwright (dramatist) William Shakespeare. This poem appears to be in Act-I, Scene-2 of his tragic comedy play The Tempest. Aerial sings this song to Ferdinand, the prince of Naples who mistakenly thinks that his father is drowned and arrives on the Solitary Island in search of his father.

Aerial says that the body of Ferdinand’s father keeps lying 30 ft. below in the sea. His bones are changed into precious corals and his eyes have been transformed into pearls. No part of his body has decayed but changed into something very strange and precious thing belonging to the sea. The sea nymphs are ringing the funeral bell every hour and morning the death of Ferdinand’s father.

Two Long Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees - Moti Nissani

In the brief essay, Two Long Term Problems: Too Many People, Too Few Trees, Moti Nissani discusses two inter related problems they are, overpopulation and deforestation. With their impact showing several consequences of the twin problems, the writer makes us aware about our duties to solve them and to save the bio-sphere for our future generation.


Scientist from all over the world express their serious concern (worry) about present state of bio-sphere as human activities caused very serious damage on environment and on critical resources. With the introduction of modern medical facilities, nutrition and sanitation, the world’s population started growing more than 80 million per year. In Nepal only, in less than 50 years the population increases at the rate of 2.5% per year from 9 million to 25 million. If this alarming growth continuous unchecked, the population of Nepal will be 46 million by 2026 A.D. which would be very difficult for Nepal to accommodate. In order to feed more people, more forest, lands are destroyed in a very large scale.

The Lamentation of the Old Pensioner - W.B Yeats

W.B Yeats in his poem The Lamentation of the Old Pensioner recollects his young and energetic youth and laments at his neglected state in his old age.

Understanding a long journey of life through ups and downs the poet feels tired, upset and heading a neglected life in his old age.  The poet in his old age now is companion less and protecting himself from the rain taking shelter under a broken tree. But in his young and colorful days in the past. The poet used to be surrounded by his friends discussing love and politics in such raining days. He was actively involved in politics and the political situation was calm and quiet during his time. He recollects the peaceful political situation of his time and contracts the present violent political situation where people are collecting weapons and making conspiracy to over through the government to get power however, the poet is different about present political situation who is mentally thinking about cruel time that has transfigured him from young to old depriving him from enjoying his colorful life.      

About Love - Anton Chekov

Revealing (showing) his perception about mysterious Love, Anton Chekov in his story About Love expresses that love is governed by emotions which doesn’t care any physical restriction. Describing three love stories, the writer puts forward logic that, “Love is different in each situation and love isn’t confined within marital relationship”.

In a rainy day Alyohin narrated love stories to his friends while having breakfast. Nikanor, a cook was in love with a beautiful maid servant Pelageya and they were living in the same house although they weren’t married. When Nikanor was drunk and had a violent temper he used to abuse and bit her. Sometimes, she had to hide herself to avoid misconduct from Nikanor being a person of religious conviction, Nikanor insisted that Pelageya. However, she didn’t want to marry with Nikanor, rather she was ready to live with him just so, despite their contradictory (opposite) views and characters, they were in deep love with each other which was a great mystery.

Grandmother - Ray Young Bear

American Indian poet Ray Young Bear in his poem Grandmother describes his grandmother using similes, metamorphose and sense verbs. Depicting (pointing) a portrait (image) of grandmother of his tribe. The poet also reveals (show) the socio-economic status of Mesquaki tribe which he belongs.


The grandmother of the poet is the source of love and inspiration for him. As the poet was closely associated with his grandmother, her image is evergreen in fresh in his mind if the poet saw his grandmother from a far distance he would instantly recognize her because of her purple scarf around her neck and plastic shopping bag in her hand. If the grandmother touch his hand were of his grandmother only because they would feel warm and damp with smell of root. This indicates poet’s poor financial state which made the grandmother work in the field despite her old age. If the poet heard a voice coming from the rock, he would immediately know that the voice was of his grandmother as it would blow inside him like a light and warm on stirring a dying fire at night. The words would be inspiring for him as they would activate his inner feeling making the loving memory of his grandmother evergreen and very fresh.

Hooke's Law and Its Experimental Verification

Robert Hooke performed an experiment on coiled spring, metallic rod or metallic wires etc and gave a law known as Hooke's law. It states that, "The restoring force developed on a body is directly proportional to the elongation produced on it, within the elastic limit."
      i.e. F∝x
      ∴F=-Kx       [Where K is proportionality constant.]

Young modified Hooke's statement and stated as, "Within elastic limit, the stress developed on the body is directly proportional to the strain produced on it."

Jul 23, 2012

The Magic of Words - Grade 11 English

One Sentence Summaries

My heart leaps up when I behold
The poem “My hear Leaps up When I Behold” is about the joy the poet feels at the sight of a rainbow which has been source of his ecstasy since his childhood and will continue to be so till his old age.

Speaking of Children
One child is an appendage and the parents can have privacy and proper guidance of the child where as the plural children is the end of privacy and the beginning of the obligations.

HSEB Grade 12 (Plus 2) Science Result [2069/2012] Published

Finally, the waiting of 35,000+ students of Grade XII Science is over. The result for HSEB Exam of Grade 12 Science held on the year 2069 (2012) has been published.

The pass percentage of the regular examinees is 72.31 % and 46.79 in regular and partial category respectively according to HSEB for this year. As for last year it was 70.45 % and 57.37% on regular and partial category respectively.

The controller of the examination said that results for other streams will be published by mid August. 

Millikan's Oil Drop Experiment

When a spherical charged body of radius r falls under the effect of various forces in a viscous medium of viscocity η, it attends the terminal velocity vt when the viscous force becomes 6πηrvt (Stoke’s law)

Experimental setup and Theory: An experimental setup of Millikan’s experiment to determine the change in oil drop is shown in figure. At first, clock oil (non volatile) is allowed to fall drop wise from the opening of upper plate A with the help of atomizer. This law undergoes collision with air particles and gets charged. The whole apparatus is kept inside double walled chamber inside which water is circulated for cooling purpose. The chamber consists of 2 windows.

Your Plan for Next 12 Months [Letter]

Dear X,
I am writing this letter after a long time. You may be surprised to think of a lazy man like me writing a letter. In fact, I want to prove that lazy man can also become a man of activity. For this reason, I have made certain plans for the next 12 months. I am writing this letter to let you know about it and give me some valuable suggestions.

Jul 22, 2012

Electrostatics

An atom is electrically neutral. Why?
Electrons moves round a positively charged nucleus. Nucleus contains as many positively charged protons as there are electrons. The charge carried by an electron and proton are equal in magnitude and opposite in sign. Hence atom as a whole is neutral.

Explain why the induced charges are not always equal to inducing charge in magnitude?
The charge induced on an insulator is always less than inducing charge in magnitude as the insulator has bound charges while charge induced on conductor equals to the inducing charge in magnitude.

Geographical Description of Nepal

Nepal, which is the name of my country, is a landlocked country located in the Himalayan Mountain range in central Asia. It is bounded by China in the north side and by India in the East, South and West. Geographically, it can be divided into mountains, hills and plain region. The plain region is known as Terai region which lies at the southern part of the country. It has spread over the area of about five hundred miles from East to West. It is bordered by India in the south. It merges into gently rising forest of Siwalik range in the north.

Jul 21, 2012

Magazine Article Describing about Kathmandu

Situated in the central part of Nepal, Kathmandu is the tourist center and the capital city. It provides sophisticated entertainment, sports of every kind and cultural facilities. Tourists can choose between expensive hotels and the cheap guesthouses. There are also swimming pools, where they can have fresh bath.

In addition to swimming pools, they can visit number of places which are the centers of attraction. The places such as Nagarkot, Sundarijal, Swoyambu, Jawlakhel Zoo, old temples etc. are the tourist-spots. They are not only beautiful but also attractive spots of nature. The tourists learn different cultural practices in these places. They can also enjoy walking along the winding cliff paths while watching the beautiful scenery of the countryside. For the sportsmen, there are opportunities for different games such as cricket, golf, badminton etc.

Jul 20, 2012

Important Historical Events of Nepal

The most important event in the history of my country is the revolution fought for democracy in 2046 B.S. It was the most significant event because it quickened the pace of development in the country. In order to dismantle the despotic panchayat system, all the political parties united as a single force and launched different programmes. The government tried to suppress the agitation mercilessly. Many of the party workers were killed. This inhumanity provoked the people to join the movement. Men, women and children marched along the streets chanting slogans against the system. Despite the cruel steps taken by the government, the number of freedom fighters increased.

Jul 19, 2012

Introduction To Computers

A computer is a powerful logical tool which works by using programs given (written or coded) by user. In other words, a computer is an electric machine that can store, organize, find and manipulate information, do calculations and control other devices.

Desktop computer, Laptop, micro computer, mini computer, PDA (Personal Digital Assistant), super computer etc. are types of computer around us.

Some Useful Terms used in the Study of Computer Science
Server: Server is a computer embedded with some program that controls or supplies information to several computers connected in a network.

Port: A port is a place on a computer where you can attach another piece of equipment, often using a cable. Moreover it is like a entrance and exit door to transfer data from one computer to another computer or other devices.

Good and Bad Effects of Developements

Television is a modern scientific invention of the present century. Presently it has become a highly essential home gadget. People can watch national and international events, sports etc. on the television. It is not only a sophisticated commodity but also a means of recreation. Like any other scientific invention, it has both good and bad effects on society.

As for the advantages, one can increase one’s knowledge about the world by watching programmes on T.V. Thus without using one’s sense of imagination, one can directly see the events of the world at home. The people having no time to read the large volumes of novels can simply watch the films based on them. Without going anywhere for entertainment, one is able to pass his time at home with TV. It saves money and energy. The advertisements shown on the screen gives us information about different products of the market. At the time of national and international games, one feels overjoyed and thankful for this invention for watching these games comfortably at home.

Jul 18, 2012

Plant Communities

The assemblage of plants in a habitat is called plant communities. The communities are not the random mixture of species. Each community consists of a set of many different species, which persists year after year. In a community, each plant species is represented by innumerable individuals. A group of individual of the same species is commonly known as population. Thus a population is a part of community and population of different species may be intermingled in a community. Henry J. Oosten defines communities as an aggregation of living organism, having mutual relationship among them and to the environment. The following points characterized the community.

Jul 17, 2012

Huygen's Principle

Huygen’s Principle is a geometrical construction which was designed to determine the position, shape and the size of a wavefront in future if its present position and nature is known.
In 1678, Huygens proposed that every point to which a luminous disturbance reaches becomes a source of a spherical wave; the sum of these secondary waves determines the form of the wave at any subsequent time. He assumed that the secondary waves travelled only in the "forward" direction and it is not explained in the theory why this is the case. He was able to provide a qualitative explanation of linear and spherical wave propagation, and to derive the laws of reflection and refraction using this principle, but could not explain the deviations from rectilinear propagation which occur when light encounters edges, apertures and screens, commonly known as diffraction effects.  Wikipedia

The Nitrogen Cycle

Plant absorb greatest quality of nitrogen from the soil for the synthesis of amino acid, protein, enzymes, nucleic acid, chlorophyll, etc. the main source of nitrogen compound is the atmospheric nitrogen. Nitrogen cycle consists of the following steps:

Nitrogen fixation: Conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into free nitrogen is referred as nitrogen fixation. This process is of two types a)Non-biological nitrogen fixation and b) Biological nitrogen fixation

About The Carbon Cycle

carbon-emission-and-about-carbon-cycle-cycle
Carbon is the basic constituents of all organic compounds. The source of carbon found in the living organism is atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), which is found in Free State in atmosphere and in dissolved state in water. Green plants are autotrophic, which use carbon dioxide through photosynthesis in the presence of sun light and carbohydrate is formed. When herbivorous animal consume the green plants, the carbon compound contained in the plant will be turned into other carbonic compound. 

Jul 14, 2012

Dalton's Atomic Theory and Stoichiometry

Stoichiometry is the branch of chemistry which deals with the weight relationship in chemical reaction and weight relationship that prevails in a chemical compound.
Dalton’s atomic Theory
In 1808, John Dalton gave his atomic theory and successfully explained the laws of chemical combinations. Before that philosophers were puzzled about the nature of matter. This theory is the milestone in the development of modern chemistry. The original statement given by Dalton has undergone expansion, modifications and clarification to a great extent. The main postulates of this theory are as follows.

Jul 13, 2012

Share Your Notes

We all know that Higher Secondary Education Board covers a wide range of subjects and faculties. At this time we are only able to cover a small portion for Science stream or faculty and there is still a lot to do. It’s a sad thing that we do not have all enough resources and manpower to cover all subjects. So, we are seeking contributors or writers for our blog. If you have resources (notes) on your possession and spare time then you may utilize it to help other students.

What can I write?
The answer is, write about anything or any subject which is included in the HSEB curriculum. You can write (including but not limited) an essay on an important topic, or a newspaper article, or may be a review of a movie you’ve recently watched, may be a short note on an important topic you’ve learnt in your class, etc. A small paragraph of yours might be useful for a lot of students. So, please do not hesitate to share if you have any.

Diffraction of Light Waves

Though this question is not being asked for long questions, it is an important topic for short questions. Differences of diffraction with interference is among frequently asked long question in HSEB Physics Grade 12 exam.

Definition: The phenomenon of bending of light round the corners and spreading into the regions of the geometrical shadow is called diffraction. (It occurs with all waves including sound waves, water waves, and electromagnetic waves such as visible light, x-rays and radio waves.)

Jul 11, 2012

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory

This is a theory to predict the shapes of molecules. It was given by Sidwick and Powel in 1940. VSEPR theory stands for Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion theory. This theory is based on the idea that electron pairs try to be as far apart as possible to minimize the repulsion. The main assumptions of VSEPR theory are as follows:

Computer Science Project Work assignment Grade XI Sample Report

HSEB notes team would like to congratulate all the SLC graduates for this year and a very warm greeting on the track of Higher Secondary Education Level.
Here is a small gift for those who have selected Computer Science as their optional subject for Class 11 as a welcome present as well as best wishes for their best future.
Now, if you are Computer Science student then you might be aware of the practical examination at the end of the session which carries 25% of the total full marks of the subject, i.e. 25. This document is a sample task report for that examination.

Jul 8, 2012

Economic Importance of Fungi

Fungi have both positive ad negative roles in our daily life. So they are our friends as well as foes (enemy).
They are described as below.
Beneficial Roles or Useful Activities.
i)    Fungi are used as food. e.g. Mushrooms and Morels.
ii)    Fungi are used in laboratory.
      a) Baking Yeast (S. cerevisae)
      b) Several alcoholic beverages such as wine, whiskey, beer, rum all are prepared by fermentation activity of sugar solution by wine yeast. (S. ellipsoidens)      c) Some fungi are used in production of enzymes like amylase, pectimase
iii)  Some fungi are used in production of several antibiotics and antibiotics and other useful medicine like penicillin, streptomycin, ergotine and ephedrine respectively.

Economic Importance of Bacteria

Bacteria play very important role in the continuous sustenance of life. They are man’s best friends as well as enemy. There are many useful as well as harmful bacteria around us. Economic importances of bacteria are studied under two headings they are Beneficial activities and Harmful activities. Beneficial Activities are studied under three headings
A)    Agricultural Importance
i)    Dead and decay of organic matter-saprophytic bacteria eg. Clostridium, Staphylo, Coccus, salmonella etc acts upon the organic matter and disintegrates them converting valuable fertilizer.
ii)    Nitrification:- It is a process of conversion of organic substance into nitrate form which are utilized by green plants easily. Eg Nitrifying bacteria like ammonia salts (nitrosomes and nitrococcus) to nitrites (nitrobacter) – Nitrates

Selecting an Organised way to manage our Documents

Though there are several documents published in numbers through HSEB notes, we feel that they are not well managed and accessible for our users. So, here is another way of managing our documents. With this way, you will be able to:
-    Find updates on every document very quicker than before.
-    Download all documents related to one subject through a single page.
We believe that, this system of arrangement of documents will fulfill all the short comings of our previous management system.

Old is Gold

Sorry there is not enough material.

We are starting with questions asked in HSEB final examination 2012 (2069), but sample test question papers by other educational organization (e.g. PABSON) and institutions will be on the follow-up trend. We are trying to make it your one stop station for hseb question collection.